Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger, Untitled (Your body is a battleground), 1989
Courtesy The Broad Art Foundation, Los Angeles

 

Barbara Kruger (*1945) is an artist who works with pictures and words in the hopes of revealing and resisting socially ingrained assumptions about power: how it determines who lives and who dies, who is healed and who is housed, who speaks and who is silenced, who is visible and who is marginalized. Since the mid-1970s, she has juxtaposed her own texts with found images in her effort to expose the machinations of capitalism, politics and gender that often go unquestioned. Based in Los Angeles and New York, Kruger has been with the gallery since 1985, represented first by Galerie Monika Sprüth and later by Sprüth Magers.

 

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The artist’s oeuvre spans photomontages and complex video and sound projects, as well as installations in the public realm. Frequently working outside the bounds of the museum or art gallery, Kruger has always managed to find new ways to reach the public, from traditional pictorial formats to vast architectural installations that transform the walls, ceilings and floors of entire spaces. Her works may appear in magazines and newspapers, the kind of light boxes usually reserved for advertising, T-shirts, posters, shopping bags, billboards, LED displays, displays on buses and in train stations, and on building facades.

Kruger’s texts—often in black or white lettering with brightly colored backgrounds, most often red—can become image elements in their own right. They take the form of evocative statements (“I shop therefore I am,” “Your body is a battleground,” “We don’t need another hero”), questions (“Do I have to give up me to be loved by you?”; “Who will write the history of tears?”) and suggestive declarations (“Put your money where your mouth is”; “You are not yourself”). When words pictures appear together, the texts dismantle the found image’s pictorial plane, making room for an abundance of echoes, effects, contradictions and implications.

Kruger’s emphatically visual conceptual practice draws on the aesthetics of graphic design and magazines (a field in which she briefly worked early in her career), 1970s punk posters and album covers. It plays with ideas informing the language-based conceptual art of the 1960s and 1970s, including those underpinning text and image works by artists such as John Baldessari, Jenny Holzer and Ed Ruscha, and it adds to the art historical legacy of German Dadaism and Soviet agitprop art by El Lissitzky and Aleksander Rodchenko. Perhaps the biggest difference between Kruger and her predecessors is her strategy of subversive mimicry: Kruger uses the dominant advertising media of late capitalist consumer society to criticize its patriarchal structures, its hierarchies and dynamics, effectively supplanting the innate purposes of these media with her own singular project.

Her works are political without trying to persuade viewers to adopt any particular system or ideology. Instead they invoke and rattle positions viewers might take innately on account of their gender, social class, nationality, religion, or age, confronting them with often repressed feelings of powerlessness, ignorance, anger, fear, or greed. They exploit the immediacy of images and texts, and the unconscious and semi-conscious reactions evoked in the beholder, and they upend social stereotypes by forcing viewers to consider them in a new light. They are as seductive as successful advertising and as effective as propaganda. Ultimately Kruger subverts systems of cultural representation, turning it back on itself.

 

Barbara Kruger: Part of the Discourse
Performa, New York 2017
From Art21’s Extended Play series, 2018
Courtesy Art21, art21.org, founded 1997

 

Works
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Stripe 2), 2019

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Stripe 2), 2019
Digital print on vinyl
243.8 × 197.5 cm
96 × 77 3/4 inches

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (If you want a picture), 2017

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (If you want a picture), 2017
Digital print on vinyl
274.3 × 170.2 × 5.1 cm
108 × 67 × 2 inches

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Questions), 1990/2018

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Questions), 1990/2018
Monumental wall work
On view October 20, 2018–November 2020 at The Geffen Contemporary at MOCA
Photo: Elon Schoenholz

More views
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
The Globe Shrinks, 2010

Barbara Kruger
The Globe Shrinks, 2010
4-screen video installation
Dimensions variable
13 min loop

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Blind idealism is...), High Line, NY, 2016

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Blind idealism is…)
High Line, New York, 2016
Photo: Timothy Schenck. Courtesy of Friends of the High Line

More views
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Too big to fail), 2012

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Too big to fail), 2012
Digital print on vinyl
274.3 × 274.3 × 6 cm
108 × 108 × 2 3/8 inches

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Truth), 2013

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Truth), 2013
Digital print on vinyl
178.6 × 292.1 cm
70 1/3 × 115 inches

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Shame it blame it), 2010

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Shame it blame it), 2010
Digital print on vinyl
316 × 365 × 6 cm
124 3/8 × 143 3/4 × 2 3/8 inches

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who owns what?), 1991/2012

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who owns what?), 1991/2012
Digital print on vinyl
292.1 × 279.4 cm
115 × 110 inches

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Belief + Doubt, Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, 2012

Barbara Kruger
Belief + Doubt, 2012
Print on vinyl
Installation at Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C., since 2012

More views
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (You, Me, We), 2003

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (You, Me, We), 2003
Chromogenic print on archival paper
155 × 124 cm
61 × 48 7/8 inches

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Now you see us / Now you don’t), 1987

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Now you see us / Now you don’t), 1987
Gelatin silver print on paper
116.2 × 137.2 cm
45 3/4 × 54 inches

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (We are all that heaven allows), 1984

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (We are all that heaven allows), 1984
Gelatin silver print on paper
186 × 120 cm
73 1/4 × 47 1/4 inches

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Your life is a perpetual insomnia), 1984

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Your life is a perpetual Insomnia), 1984
Gelatin silver print
183.2 × 118.2 cm (framed)
72 × 46 1/2 inches (framed)

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is born to lose?), 1990

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is born to lose?), 1990
Gelatin silver print in artist's frame
251.5 × 102.8 cm
99 × 40.5 inches

More views
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is free to choose?), 1990

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is free to choose?), 1990
Gelatin silver print in artist's frame
251.5 × 102.8 cm
99 × 40.5 inches

More views
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Let go), 2003

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Let go), 2003
Chromogenic dye coupler print
152.4 × 228.6 cm
60 × 90 inches
Edition of 5

More views
Details
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Stripe 2), 2019
Digital print on vinyl
243.8 × 197.5 cm
96 × 77 3/4 inches

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Stripe 2), 2019
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (If you want a picture), 2017
Digital print on vinyl
274.3 × 170.2 × 5.1 cm
108 × 67 × 2 inches

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (If you want a picture), 2017
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Questions), 1990/2018
Monumental wall work
On view October 20, 2018–November 2020 at The Geffen Contemporary at MOCA
Photo: Elon Schoenholz

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Questions), 1990/2018
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Questions), 1990
Monumental wall work first presented at The Geffen Contemporary at MOCA in 1990

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Questions), 1989 - 2018
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Questions), 1990/2018 (detail)

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Questions), 1990/2018
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
The Globe Shrinks, 2010
4-screen video installation
Dimensions variable
13 min loop

Barbara Kruger
The Globe Shrinks, 2010
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Blind idealism is…)
High Line, New York, 2016
Photo: Timothy Schenck. Courtesy of Friends of the High Line

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Blind idealism is...), High Line, NY, 2016
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Blind idealism is…), 2016 (detail)

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Blind idealism is...), 2016
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Blind idealism is…), 2016 (detail)

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Blind idealism is...), 2016
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Too big to fail), 2012
Digital print on vinyl
274.3 × 274.3 × 6 cm
108 × 108 × 2 3/8 inches

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Too big to fail), 2012
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Truth), 2013
Digital print on vinyl
178.6 × 292.1 cm
70 1/3 × 115 inches

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Truth), 2013
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Shame it blame it), 2010
Digital print on vinyl
316 × 365 × 6 cm
124 3/8 × 143 3/4 × 2 3/8 inches

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Shame it blame it), 2010
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who owns what?), 1991/2012
Digital print on vinyl
292.1 × 279.4 cm
115 × 110 inches

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who owns what?), 1991/2012
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Belief + Doubt, 2012
Print on vinyl
Installation at Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C., since 2012

Barbara Kruger
Belief + Doubt, Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, 2012
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Belief + Doubt, 2012
Print on vinyl
Installation at Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C., since 2012

Barbara Kruger
Belief + Doubt, 2012
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (You, Me, We), 2003
Chromogenic print on archival paper
155 × 124 cm
61 × 48 7/8 inches

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (You, Me, We), 2003
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Now you see us / Now you don’t), 1987
Gelatin silver print on paper
116.2 × 137.2 cm
45 3/4 × 54 inches

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Now you see us / Now you don’t), 1987
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (We are all that heaven allows), 1984
Gelatin silver print on paper
186 × 120 cm
73 1/4 × 47 1/4 inches

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (We are all that heaven allows), 1984
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Your life is a perpetual Insomnia), 1984
Gelatin silver print
183.2 × 118.2 cm (framed)
72 × 46 1/2 inches (framed)

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Your life is a perpetual insomnia), 1984
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is born to lose?), 1990
Gelatin silver print in artist's frame
251.5 × 102.8 cm
99 × 40.5 inches

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is born to lose?), 1990
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is born to lose?), 1990 (detail)

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is born to lose?), 1990
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is born to lose?), 1990 (installation view)

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is born to lose?), 1990
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is free to choose?), 1990
Gelatin silver print in artist's frame
251.5 × 102.8 cm
99 × 40.5 inches

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is free to choose?), 1990
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is free to choose?), 1990 (detail)

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is free to choose?), 1990
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is free to choose?), 1990 (installation view)

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Who is free to choose?), 1990
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Let go), 2003
Chromogenic dye coupler print
152.4 × 228.6 cm
60 × 90 inches
Edition of 5

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Let go), 2003
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Let go), 2003 (detail)

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Let go), 2003
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Let go), 2003 (detail)

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Let go), 2003
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Let go), 2003 (installation view)

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Let go), 2003
Details
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Current and Upcoming
Barbara Kruger
BARBARA KRUGER: THINKING OF YOU, I MEAN ME, I MEAN YOU

BARBARA KRUGER: THINKING OF YOU, I MEAN ME, I MEAN YOU
Art Institute of Chicago
April 2021

The Art Institute of Chicago; the Museum of Modern Art, New York; and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art are pleased to announce a major solo exhibition devoted to the work of Barbara Kruger.

Opening at the Art Institute of Chicago in April 2021, THINKING OF YOU, I MEAN ME, I MEAN YOU will present four decades of the artist’s work—the largest and most comprehensive presentation of her work in twenty years.

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, November 2021
Museum of Modern Art, New York, Summer 2022

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger, Untitled (You construct intricate rituals which allow you to touch the skins of other men), 1984

Taking Space
Barbara Kruger
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia
November 19, 2020–April 11, 2021

Taking Space: Contemporary Women Artists and the Politics of Scale examines the approaches of women artists for whom space is a critical feature of their work, whether they take the space on a wall, the real estate of a room through sculpture and installation, engage seriality as a spatial visual practice, cast a wide legacy in art history or claim the space of their body. This exhibition invites viewers to consider how size and repetition can be interpreted as political gestures in the practices of many women artists.

Link

Some Day is Now: Women, Art & Social Change
Jenny Holzer, Barbara Kruger
New Britain Museum of Art, New Britain, CT
October 1, 2020–January 24, 2021

Some Day is Now features over twenty artists including Yoko Ono, Jenny Holzer, and the Guerrilla Girls, who combine language, text, and image to express hope, enact change, raise awareness, and give voice to their beliefs. Installed with historic ephemera from the women’s suffrage movement, and employing similarly direct and impactful visual strategies, their works communicate words of action and empowerment for women as well as people of all genders, races, and ethnicities.

Link
Barbara Kruger
The New Britain Museum of Art
Barbara Kruger
Women Breaking Boundaries, installation view, Cincinnati Art Museum, 2019–20. Photo: Cincinnati Art Museum

Women Breaking Boundaries
Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati
October 11, 2019–Ongoing

This exhibition explores the role of women in art and art history at the Cincinnati Art Museum through works from the museum’s permanent collection created from the seventeenth century to today. Art from across Europe, North America and Asia in a range of mediums is featured together, including oil on canvas, metalwork, ceramic, prints, photography, and fashion. The exhibition encourages visitors to think critically about gender, representation, and diversity and how that translates to the museum’s collecting practices and gallery installations.

Link

Desire, Knowledge, and Hope (with Smog)
The Broad, Los Angeles
Summer 2020

In light of recent developments regarding the coronavirus (COVID-19), exhibitions, events and talks are subject to change.

This exhibition showcases the work of iconic Los Angeles artists John Baldessari, Mike Kelley, Barbara Kruger and Ed Ruscha. Each has contributed to a wide-reaching and global art dialogue; they have also played key roles in shaping the art scene of Los Angeles and the city’s rise as a global arts capital.

Link
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger, Twelve, 2004
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger, Untitled (Questions), 1990/2018, installation view, The Geffen Contemporary at MOCA, Los Angeles, October 20, 2018–November 30, 2020. Photo: Elon Schoenholz

Barbara Kruger
Untitled (Questions), 1990/2018
Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
October 20, 2018–November 30, 2020

MOCA has reinstalled this monumental wall work by Los Angeles–based artist Barbara Kruger. The emblematic red, white, and blue artwork was originally commissioned by MOCA in 1989 and was last installed in 1990 on the south wall of MOCA's building (now The Geffen Contemporary at MOCA). The work holds an iconic place in the collective memory of Los Angeles' art community and is considered one of the museum’s curatorial highlights over its forty-year history. In connection with the work, MOCA led a series of voter registration efforts during the 2018 midterms and will continue these efforts in advance of the 2020 general election.

Link

Don't let this be easy
Jenny Holzer, Barbara Kruger, Cindy Sherman, Kaari Upson
The Walker Art Center, Minneapolis
July 30, 2020–July 4, 2021

Featuring works from the 1970s to today, Don’t let this be easy is an institutional project taking the form of an exhibition, coupled with new scholarship and online publishing focused on women artists from the Walker’s collection. The initiative is presented in conjunction with the Feminist Art Coalition (FAC), a nationwide effort involving more than 100 museums committed to social justice and structural change.

Link
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger, Untitled (We will no longer be seen and not heard), 1985 (detail)
Photocredit: Walker Special Purchase Fund, 1985

Graphic Pull: Contemporary Prints from the Collection
Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University, Durham, NC
August 27, 2020–February 21, 2021

In light of recent developments regarding the coronavirus (COVID-19), exhibitions, events and talks are subject to change.

Graphic Pull: Contemporary Prints from the Collection highlights numerous printmaking techniques from the Nasher Museum’s collection with works dating from the 1970s to today. Including both traditional and unconventional printing methods, the exhibition explores how contemporary artists have continued to use this age-old graphic form while also expanding on its processes and definitions.

Link
Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger, Untitled (We will no longer be seen and not heard), 1985 (detail)
Exhibitions at Sprüth Magers

Eau de Cologne
Rosemarie Trockel, Cindy Sherman, Jenny Holzer, Barbara Kruger, Louise Lawler, Astrid Klein, Marlene Dumas, Kara Walker, Cady Noland
March 27–April 12, 2019
Hong Kong

Eau de Cologne began as a series of exhibitions and three publications, organized by Monika Sprüth between 1985 and 1989, which sought to create a new dialogue around contemporary art. The exhibitions introduced a select group of young women artists, each of whom individually represented powerful attitudes and practices.

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Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
FOREVER
September 16, 2017–January 20, 2018
Berlin

Sprüth Magers presents FOREVER, a new site-specific work by Barbara Kruger. For this installation, which occupies all four walls and the floor of the Berlin gallery’s main exhibition space, the artist has created one of her immersive room-wraps and several new vinyl works. Their boldly designed textual statements on the nature of truth, power, belief and doubt embody the distinctive visual language that Kruger has developed over the course of her forty-year career.

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Eau de Cologne
Rosemarie Trockel, Cindy Sherman, Jenny Holzer, Barbara Kruger, Louise Lawler, Jenny Holzer / Lady Pink
June 28–August 20, 2016
Los Angeles

The group show Eau de Cologne at Sprüth Magers in Los Angeles features work from the late 1970s to 2016 by Jenny Holzer, Barbara Kruger, Louise Lawler, Cindy Sherman and Rosemarie Trockel. The exhibition at Sprüth Magers’ recently-opened Los Angeles gallery is a follow–up to its predecessor in Berlin last year. It sheds light on key topics in these artists’ works, but also the specific history of the gallery and its connection to these important female figures of an art that subtly addresses women’s roles in very different ways.

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Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Eau de Cologne
Rosemarie Trockel, Cindy Sherman, Jenny Holzer, Barbara Kruger, Louise Lawler
September 17–October 21, 2015
Berlin

This group exhibition at Sprüth Magers Berlin shows works from the early 1980s to 2015 by Jenny Holzer, Barbara Kruger, Louise Lawler, Cindy Sherman and Rosemarie Trockel. These five artists have been working with Monika Sprüth since the foundation of her gallery in Cologne in the early 1980s and have been closely connected to the gallery ever since.

Barbara Kruger

Uneasy Angel / Imagine Los Angeles
Doug Aitken, John Baldessari, Patterson Beckwith, Lecia Dole-Recio, Jack Goldstein, Richard Hawkins, Patrick Hill, Sister Corita Kent, Norman M. Klein, Barbara Kruger, David Lamelas, John McCracken, Matthew Monahan, Lari Pittman, Sterling Ruby, Allen Ruppersberg, Lara Schnitger, Kim Schoenstadt, Paul Sietsema, Catherine Sullivan, Robert Therrien, Pae White
curated by Johannes Fricke Waldthausen
September 14–November 3, 2007
Munich

Uneasy Angel / Imagine Los Angeles is a thematic exhibition comprising the creative production of contemporary artists, writers, and filmmakers living and working in Los Angeles. In light of Umberto Eco’s and Jean Baudrillard’s notion of hyperreality, the exhibition perceives Los Angeles as just such a place—with unclear boundaries separating reality and the imaginary.

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Barbara Kruger
September 10–October 30, 2004
Munich

Barbara Kruger

Babara Kruger, Marlene Dumas, Tracey Moffatt
Barbara Kruger, Marlene Dumas, Tracey Moffatt
April 26–July 27, 2002
Cologne

Barbara Kruger
Barbara Kruger

Barbara Kruger
March 23–April 26, 1990
Cologne

Barbara Kruger
April 30–June 2, 1987
Cologne

Barbara Kruger
Press

Noch ein Morgen
Zeit Magazin, article by Christoph Amend, June 18, 2020

“Auch ich fragte, was soll das?”
Die Zeit, article by Tobias Timm, September 2019

Barbara Kruger
Spike, article by Patrick J. Reed, Summer 2019

Barbara Kruger on Feminism, #MeToo And The Power Of Words
Tatler, article by Payal Uttam, March 25, 2019

In advance of the midterms, Barbara Kruger reprises MOCA mural that asks ‘Who is beyond the law?’
Los Angeles Times, article by Carolina A. Miranda, October 18, 2018

Barbara Kruger Forever: The essential artist talks Ikea, Trump, hypebeasts, sex, and power.
The Cut, article by Kat Stoeffel, February 2018

Barbara Kruger’s Supreme Performance
The New Yorker, article by Jamie Lauren Keiles, November 12, 2017

Land der Unsicherheit
Süddeutsche Zeitung, article by Catrin Lorch, October 13, 2017

These ’80s Artists Are More Important Than Ever
The New York Times, article by Gary Indiana, February 13, 2017

Biography

Barbara Kruger (*1945, Newark, NJ) lives and works in Los Angeles and New York. Solo shows include AMOREPACIFIC Museum of Art, Seoul (2019), National Gallery of Art, Washington (2016), High Line Art, New York (2016), Modern Art Oxford (2014), Kunsthaus Bregenz (2013), Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich (2011), Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt (2010), Gallery of Modern Art, Glasgow (2005), Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (2000), Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (1999), Serpentine Gallery, London (1994), Musée d’art contemporain, Montreal (1985) and Kunsthalle Basel (1984). Group shows include those at Hamburger Bahnhof (2018), V-A-C Foundation, Palazzo delle Zattere, Venice (2017), Hammer Museum, Los Angeles (2014), Biennale of Sydney (2014), Museum Ludwig, Cologne (2013), Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam (2010), Museum of Modern Art, New York (2010, 2009, 2007), Palazzo Grassi, Venice (2006), MCA Chicago (2004), Tate Liverpool (2002), Centre Pompidou, Paris (1988) and Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1987). In 2021, a major retrospective will be held at the Art Institute of Chicago and will travel to the Museum of Modern Art, New York and to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

Education
1966 Parsons School of Design, New York
1965 Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York
Awards, Grants and Fellowships
2019 Goslarer Kaiserring ('Emperor's Ring') Prize from the city of Goslar, Germany
2005 The Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement, 51st Venice Biennale
1996 Artist in Residence, Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
1983–84 National Endowment for the Arts Grant, Washington, D.C.
1976–77 Creative Artists Service Program Grant
Public Collections
Akron Art Museum, Akron, OH
Arario Museum, Seoul
Art Institute of Chicago
Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, ME
The Broad, Los Angeles
Brooklyn Museum, New York
Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
Collection Vanmoerkerke, Oostende
Denver Art Museum, Denver, CO
Deste Foundation for Contemporary Art, Athens
DZ BANK Art Collection, Frankfurt
Elgiz Museum, Maslak
Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco
Fonds régional d'art contemporain (FRAC) de Bourgogne, Dijon
George Eastman Museum, Rochester, NY
Glenstone Museum, Potomac, MD
Hammer Museum, Los Angeles
Hallmark Art Collection, Kansas City, MO
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA
Institute of Contemporary Arts, London
Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Marciano Art Foundation, Los Angeles
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Louis, MO
Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, WI
Moderna Museet, Stockholm
Mönchehaus Museum, Goslar
Musée d'art moderne et d'art contemporain, Nice
Musée d'art moderne et contemporain de Saint-Étienne Métropole, France
Museum of Contemporary Art Antwerp (MHKA)
Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago
The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego
Museum of Contemporary Photography, Columbia College, Chicago
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Museum Ludwig, Cologne
Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington
National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
NSU Art Museum Fort Lauderdale, FL
Philadelphia Museum of Art
Pinault Collection, Paris
Rubell Family Collection, Miami
Saint Louis Art Museum, St. Louis, MO
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
Seibu Museum of Art, Tokyo
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC
Solomon R. Guggenheim, New York
Speed Art Museum, Louisville, KY
Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam
Tacoma Art Museum, WA
Tate, London
Vanhaerents Art Collection, Brussels
Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York
Yokohama Museum of Art
Zimmerli Art Museum, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ